Información biográfica sobre historiadores económicos

Entre el material disponible mediante el sitio de la EHS, información biográfica, siempre interesante, sobre historiadores económicos (a 2009): A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY

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Artículo: Spatial Competition, Innovation and Institutions: The Industrial Revolution and the Great Divergence

Klaus Desmet, Avner Greif  y Stephen L. Parente han publicado Spatial Competition, Innovation and Institutions: The Industrial Revolution and the Great Divergence Allí exploran la gran divergencia analizando la difusión tecnológica. En su abstract refieren: "Why do some countries industrialize much earlier than others? One widely-accepted answer is that markets need to be large enough for producers to find it profitable to bear the fixed cost of introducing modern technologies. This insight, however, has limited explanatory power, as illustrated by England having industrialized nearly two centuries before China. This paper argues that a market-size-only theory is insufficient because it ignores that many of the modern technologies associated with the Industrial Revolution were fiercely resisted by skilled craftsmen who expected a reduction in earnings. Once we take into account the incentives to resist by factor suppliers' organizations such as craft guilds, we theoretically show that industrialization no longer depends on market size, but on the degree of spatial competition between the guilds' jurisdictions. We substantiate the relevance of our theory for the timing of industrialization in England and China (i) by providing historical and empirical evidence on the relation between spatial competition, craft guilds and innovation, and (ii) by showing that a model of our theory calibrated to historical data on spatial competition correctly predicts the timing of industrialization in both countries. The theory can therefore account for both the Industrial Revolution and the Great Divergence."

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Artículo: Railroads, Technology Adoption, and Modern Economic Development: Evidence from Japan

Junichi Yamasaki publicó Railroads, Technology Adoption, and Modern Economic Development: Evidence from Japan. El abstract resume "Railroad access can accelerate the technological progress in the industrial sector and therefore induce structural change and urbanization, the two common features of modern economic growth. I examine this particular mechanism in the context of Japanese railroad network expansion and modern economic growth in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries. By digitizing a novel data set that measures the use of steam engines at the factory level, allowing me to directly observe the diffusion of steam power, I analyze the effect of railroad access on the adoption of steam power. To overcome the endogeneity problem, I determine the cost-minimizing path between destinations, and use this to construct an instrument for railroad access. I find that railroad access led to an increased adoption of steam power by factories, which in turn reallocated labor from the agricultural to the industrial sector, thereby inducing structural change. Railroad network also broke mean reversion in population growth, eventually leading to urbanization. My results support the view that railroad network construction was key to the modern economic growth in pre-First World War Japan"

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Artículo: The Role of Structural Transformation in Regional Productivity Growth and Convergence in Japan: 1874 - 2008

Suamik Paul y Kyoji Fukao publicaron The Role of Structural Transformation in Regional Productivity Growth and Convergence in Japan: 1874 - 2008, en cuyo abstract leemos: "Japan’s regional convergence of productivity levels throughout the 20th century can be best described as a cumulative process of “catching up, forging ahead, and falling behind”. Using a novel dataset spanning 135 years (1874 – 2008), this study finds support for a crucial role played by structural transformation in convergence. The pace of productivity catch-up and convergence accelerated in the mid-1950s with the help of structural transformation, particularly in the period from 1955–1965. Structural transformation explains, on average, about 30% of the aggregate productivity growth, and its effect intensified in prefectures with faster movements of labor across sectors and larger sectoral productivity gaps. However, since the early 1970s, its contribution to the convergence was frequently offset by within-sector productivity growth, in turn thwarting the pace of convergence. These counter-balancing effects contributed to the diverse pathways of productivity catch-up at the prefecture level."

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Bases de datos: Estadísticas de Brasil

Anttonio Tena Junguito y Christopher David Absell publicaron The Reconstruction of Brazil's Foreign Trade Series, 1821-1913. En el resumen leemos "To date, research on the economic history of Brazil during the nineteenth century has relied on official foreign trade statistics, the accuracy of which has repeatedly been put into question. This paper provides insights into the accuracy of the official series by examining the accuracy of the export and import series for Brazil during the nineteenth century. We re-estimate the official import series using trading partner sources, and find that the official series was marginally under-valued during certain periods of the nineteenth century. Furthermore, we provide new upper- and lower-bound estimates of the export series by testing different assumptions regarding the size of the cif-fob factor adjustments. Finally, we introduce a new import price index for the period 1827-1913."

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Conversaciones: ControlH

Un podcast sobre la economía de preguerra organizado por alumnos de la carrera de historia

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Bases de datos: Estadísticas de Chile

Un corto tiempo atrás se han publicado algunos trabajos con cifras de largo plazo de Chile, en temas de de inversión, capital y cuentas fiscales. 

En uno de los trabajos,  Inversión y capital: Chile, 1833-2010, José Díaz B. y Jeanne Gert Wagner, destacan "This paper reports sources and methods utilized when estimating Chilean gross investment and net capital stock of fixed assets between 1833 and 2010.Two types of assets are identified: (i)machinery and equipment and (ii)construction (total). The main source for machinery investments is imports and a price for such goods based on Chilean import structure and export data of providing countries. In the case of construction, we rely on public expenditure on infrastructure and indirect measures for private activity. From 1940 onwards all data is obtained from national accounts. Capital is generated applying the perpetual inventory method. Main findings are: (i)Chile starts from a quite low capital output ratio around 1830, (ii)in the second half of the 19th Century, and specially due to the expansion of construction, the economy reaches capital output ratios comparable with other countries, (iii)the relative importance of machinery and equipment in total investment starts at practically zero increasing along the 170 years, (iv)capital per laborer expands systematically but slowly"

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Por otra parte, en el abstract de Construcción de Cuentas Fiscales1810-2010: Dos Exploraciones Específicas, sus autores (José Díaz B. ; Constanza Gómez M. ; Jeanne Gert Wagner): "The aim of this working paper is twofold: first, to extend the series provided by Jofre, Lüders and Wagner (2000) until 2010 and second, check specific series in the light of additional information on the subject."

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Artículo: Physiological constraints and comparative economic development

Carl-Johan Dalgaard,  y Holger Strulik publicaron Physiological constraints and comparative economic development. Detallan en su resumen "It is a well known fact that economic development and distance to the equator are positively correlated variables in the world today. It is perhaps less well known that as recently as 1500 C.E. it was the other way around. The present paper provides a theory of why the 'latitude gradient' seemingly changed sign in the course of the last half millennium. In particular, we develop a dynamic model of economic and physiological development in which households decide upon the number and nutrition of their offspring. In this setting we demonstrate that relatively high metabolic costs of fertility, which may have emerged due to positive selection towards greater cold tolerance in locations away from the equator, would work to stifle economic development during pre-industrial times, yet allow for an early onset of sustained growth. As a result, the theory suggests a reversal of fortune whereby economic activity gradually shifts away from the equator in the process of long-term economic development"

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